Intro:

In the middle of an old town in the middle of a grand nation there is a changing light that hangs in the middle of a cross section of two highways that carry old cars off into the horizon to meet the sunset.

An old Model-T has been known to hover over that old blacktop carrying a family to a service early on a Sunday morn as the sun rises in the east and cuts through the low hanging purple clouds.

That same car, summers ago, may have been placed on that same road carrying a corral of hearty young boys raisin Cain on Saturday night fresh off from farm duty. The same damp air that shrouded their bodies in a stuffy hay mow that adorned those bodies with the sweat of a good day’s work now envelops them in an expectant feeling as stars pepper the sky and aftershave stains their loose white collars.

That same crossroads was the place that the town would gather for a parade; lining the sidewalks with lawn chairs and gleaming young faces set wide with teeming young eyes awaiting the moment that sailors in all-whites would cross and firecrackers could be seen atop the two story business buildings that reached toward the heavens with hopes this year of more booms than busts.

Its said that those stars not only shone down to touch light upon the broad shoulders of boys, but they would dance across the sky one time ago as a hopeful courting couple would lay in the dead night’s streets as they claimed those stars with open and hopeful hearts.

Any old one stop light town is jus’ as good as any other, so don’t hold that again’ my story none.

 

Green Jobs, Peace and Justice, and The Two Angels that Kissed at the DNC

“We are doing everything we can to bring the same expertise that we brought to taking down the coal industry and coal-fired power in this country to taking on gas in the same way … to ensure that we’re moving to a 100% clean energy future.”

I heard upon the second day of the Democratic National Convention two angels happened to kiss upon the stage: their names Green and Jobs. I too believe that carbon emissions pose a huge threat to our health; however, I am also of the belief that creating government jobs does nothing to decrease our effect on the environment.

My belief is that in order to arrest the damage done by green house gasses we would have to shut down thousands of plants, outlaw millions of careers, and put in peril hundreds of thousands of families. We would have to dump billions of taxpayer dollars into government research that yielded little result in order to ameliorate the multitude of practical and social problems that cutting back on carbon emissions had created, but the Clinton Campaign cannot say that.

Whenever you have the opportunity to both reach justice and ensure tranquility, you have hit the political lottery. The reason being that citizens float through life never seeing one occurring alongside the other. The truth is, people see problems. The American people are not inept, and they are not yet entirely alienated from reality. The people want solutions, but they can’t handle the truth, and they won’t pay the cost for those solutions. If the people were told that in order to cut Carbon Emissions they would have to leave families broken and destitute and taxes across the board would have to be raised in order to form another bureaucracy, they certainly wouldn’t be as keen on environmental reform. However, when you ask a man if he is in favor of a clean energy future, he is a fool if he says no.

Upon observing democracy in ancient Athens, Thucydides noted that there were three political motivators for all citizens alike: fear, honor, and profit. In posing the solution of creating green jobs, the Clinton campaign was able to touch all three aspects of political motivation. Fear because carbon emissions are scary, and the world ending is bad. Honor because human beings are truly drawn toward being part of the solution to a problem that plagues the masses. And profit because providing a solution that bolsters the prosperity of the polis is win-win.

But this is all politics, and this is a shell of real rhetoric. In Aristotle’s Rhetoric he claims, “Rhetoric is useful because things which are true and things which are just are by nature stronger than their contraries. So if the decisions are not made as they ought to be, the audience must fail because of themselves; and this deserves reproach. Again it is not easy for a man to persuade some people even if he uses the most accurate science, for scientific arguments are for the sake of instruction”. For all Aristotle says throughout his poetics, he constantly recognizes this essential fact: that the true does surface, and men being rational and knowledge loving by their very nature will seek and find truth. In other words, Aristotle believed that pandering was unnatural and therefore was not true rhetoric. Rhetoric, although dealing with persuasion, is bound to the true and the just because the rhetor was bound to his audience, and his audience is always rational and more inclined to the beautiful than the ugly.

Aristotle also lays naked the purpose for his teaching rhetoric. He states, “The current authors who compiled works on rhetoric have contributed but a small part of this art; for only persuasive techniques are subjects of the art of rhetoric, while all other matters are merely accessories. But these writers say nothing about enthymemes (truncated logic), which are indeed the framework of persuasion; instead they busy themselves with matters most of which lie outside the subject”. All men who had been teaching rhetoric until his time had not been truly studying rhetoric. Because they simply wanted to learn how to defend themselves with words and attack others in courts of law, they fell short according to Aristotle. Because they were looking only at that which was accessory to true persuasion, they would not have anything to say about the true or the good, but only about given cases in which they had prefabricated strategies to get around the minds of men. In other words, they taught to avoid truth rather than pursue it. Aristotle understood that this was not the study of the art of rhetoric because the art of rhetoric taught men to reason in any given case, not simply to present an argument.

In an era of teleprompters and soundbites, it may be useful for our elected officials to understand the purpose of speech. For rhetoric, as reason, is not simply about besting one’s opponent in argument. Neither is the essence of rhetoric about providing answers or getting elected. The purpose of rhetoric is to reason towards the true in any given scenario. Isn’t this something we would like to see our executive cultivate the capacity to perform?